GENERAL QUESTIONS
What is a catalyst, how does it work, easy everyday questions and answers.

WHAT IS THE FITCH FUEL CATALYST?
The Fitch Fuel Catalyst is a pre-combustion fuel treatment device the purpose of which is to improve combustion.The Fitch Fuel Catalyst is a true catalyst in that it causes a reaction but is not consumed or affected in the process.Therefore it is not an additive, as it puts nothing into the fuel. It is installed in the fuel line of any engine just like a fuel filter. It is a maintenance- free product,which will last for up to 250,000 miles or essentially, the life of the engine.

HOW DOES IT WORK?
Testing by several leading laboratories have confirmed that the Fitch Fuel catalyst is actually re-refining the fuel immediately prior to combustion. This is accomplished through a complex chemical reaction, which breaks the long chain hydrocarbons converting them to smaller, higher energy, and more combustible constituents, which burn more efficiently. This process is patented and proprietary to Advanced Power Systems International, Inc.

WHAT ARE THE APPLICATIONS?
Any gasoline or diesel engine of any size may be treated with the Fitch Fuel Catalyst. Successful testing has also been accomplished on methanol, kerosene and propane. In summary, any equipment may be successfully treated with the Fitch Fuel Catalyst as long as the correct size unit is used. ( Sufficient catalytic material must be present based on the fuel flow of the engine )

WHAT ARE THE BENEFITS OF THE PRODUCT?
The combustion improvement caused by the presence of the Fitch Fuel Catalyst produces a number of benefits. Because the fuel is consumed more completely, less fuel is burned, emissions are lowered and power is increased. In addition, engine oil remains cleaner, longer because blow-by is reduced. Because carbon buildup in the engine is also reduced the life of the engine is enhanced. The overall result is a more efficiently running engine. The extent to which these benefits are obtained is a function of the age and condition of the engine, how the engine is being used and the quality of the fuel being burned.

SUMMARY OF BENEFITS:
INCREASED FUEL ECONOMY, LOWER EMISSIONS, MORE POWER, LESS MAINTENANCE, and ENHANCED ENGINE LIFE.

WHAT ARE THE ECONOMIC BENEFITS TO THE COMMERCIAL USER?
1. Improved fuel economy, on average 5 % to 12% means substantial savings.
2. Lower emissions means complying with new state regulations and therefore less likelihood of a traffic citation for excess smoke. Less soot also means fewer truck washes and a cleaner trailer.
3. Increased power means better gradability and performance and less driver fatigue.
4. Less maintenance means fewer oil changes because the engine oil will stay cleaner. longer as blow-by is reduced. Injectors will also stay cleaner.
5. Engine life is increased because carbon buildup is reduced.

In summary, all of these benefits add up to a significant reduction in operational expenses and a quick product payback.

> View 2010 Credentials

GENERAL INFORMATION
General questions and answers from users etc.

Any new technology brings with it a host of questions. The introduction of the Fitch® Fuel Catalyst to the World market is no exception. In response to claims of improved combustion, increased power and reduced emissions, the manufacturer. Advanced Power Systems International, Inc., has anticipated a few of the more pertinent questions. The following Question and Answer discussion will answer these questions and shed light on what possibly is one of the most exciting innovations of the decade.

Q. What is the difference between a fuel catalyst and an additive?
A. An additive is usually a chemical introduced into solution with fuel. Additives must be replenished at each refueling. A catalyst affects the fuel but does not become part of it.

Q. What are the major components of the Fitch® Fuel Catalyst?
A. The Catalyst is a composite of a number of metals forming an alloy. These metals are coalesced by a propriety process.

Q. How does the catalyst work?
A. All hydrocarbon fuels contain gums and resins which cause the fuel molecules of petrol and Diesel fuel to conglomerate in clusters. These clusters are too large to bum completely in the extremely short time that the burning fuel is in the combustion chamber. Therefore, these unburned molecules enter the exhaust stream as a smoky gas and do not contribute any power to the operation of the engine. The Catalyst dissolves these gums and resins so that these clusters of molecules do not form, allowing all the fuel to be used for power. The theory is verified by the fact that the catalyst fuel consistently produces exhaust emissions reductions of 50% or more in both hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, thus indicating more complete combustion.

Q. What are the benefits to be gained from the use of the Catalyst?
A. Engine starting is easier, maintenance is less costly, fuel cost per kilometer is reduced and engine life is increased with more power and less pollution.

Q. How is the Catalyst introduced to the fuel supply?
A. For small engines of 50 HP or less, a small Catalyst unit, called a ‘Drop-In’, is simply inserted into the fuel tank. For larger engines either drop-in’s or an in-line canister style Catalyst is installed in the fuel line.

Q. What type of engines will benefit from the use of the Catalyst?
A. The catalyst is effective on any petrol, diesel or LPG engine or any engine which is run on Fossil fuel, including buses, marine equipment, farm machinery, stationary pumps, generators, lawn and garden equipment, etc.

Q. How long does the Catalyst last?
A. The Fitch® Fuel Catalyst warranty is for 400,000 kilometers, 5,000 operating hours or five years, whichever comes first. It is a maintenance-free device.

Q. What is the difference between a Fitch® Fuel Catalyst and a Catalytic Converter?
A. The Fitch® Fuel Catalyst pre-treats the fuel before the combustion process and by increasing combustion efficiency reduces the creation of pollutants. Catalytic Converters are installed at the end of the combustion process where they remove pollutants after they have already been created.

Q. Can the Fitch® Fuel Catalyst be used in conjunction with a catalytic converter?
A. Absolutely – it will help extend the useful life of the catalytic converter.

 

Q. Has the Fitch been tested by any recognized facilities?
A. Yes ..the Fitch Fuel Catalyst has been tested and proven for over 10 years by numerous universities and independant laboratories around the world. It is the only permanent fuel treatment on the market that can deliever horsepower and torque while decreasing harmful emissions.

Q. Is there a \”break in period\”, once I install the Fitch, before it will begin to work?
A. BREAK-IN PERIOD: The length of this break-in period depends on the age and condition of the engine. An engine in average condition should take approximately 500 miles, (800 kilometers) or 10 operating hours to achieve maximum benefit from the catalyst. During the break-in period the Fitch unit will be cleaning any excess carbon and resins from the engine and fuel system. It is therefore possible to have higher emissions and/or fuel consumption during this period. The cleaning out of this build up from the engine will initially result in dirtier engine oil then normal since much of the carbon residue cleaned from the combustion chamber ends up in the engine oil pan. After the first oil change however, the engine oil will continue to be much cleaner than before use of the Fitch Fuel Catalyst due to the reduction of oil soot contamination. It is also possible, on high mileage engines, to find the fuel filter will need replacing, as it will accumulate deposits being loosened from the fuel system. A clogged filter will cause poor fuel economy. After the break in period, it may be possible to evaluate your vehicle with lower octane fuel. Drop down one grade at time to ensure proper engine performance.

HEATING SYSTEM QUESTIONS

Q. Are there units to handle large boiler applications or are they just for small furnace use? 
A. There are Fitch units available for the largest of boilers or systems. Contact us with your requirements and we will be glad to help. All applications are based on fuel flow per hour. This determines the size of the unit required.

Q. Will the Fitch save me on heating costs just by hooking it on my furnace? 
A. The Fitch will improve the quality of the fuel but it should always be installed by a qualified furnace technician because re-adjustment of the system is neccessary to attain the full savings gained by the Fitch.

Q. Will the Fitch work on propane? 
A. Yes the Fitch works on all fuels, gas,oil, propane,bunkerC,and many others. In propane applications it aids in cutting down on the “cokeing” of the nozzles of units and keeping them cleaner running while also lowering emissions. This is similar to fuel injection units which have a problem of the injectors clogging up over a period of time.

WARRANTY QUESTIONS

Q. Will the Fitch void my warranty if I add it to my vehicle?

A. NO. The product has been certified by the EPA and CARB. With the presence of the FFC a manufacturer can not deny warranty.The FFC is a permanent pre-combustion deviece that re-refines the fuel and is not an additive. Extensive testing has been done to prove that none of the catalyst “leaches” into the fuel. It does not wear down or deteriorate over a period of time.

READ WARRANTY CERTIFICATE

GASOLINE AND DIESEL BASICS.
Information about fuel basics, detonation, preignition, and octane levels, the difference between diesel and gasoline fuels.

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel – The Basics
The octane number assigned to a motor fuel has very little to do with the actual chemical “octane’s” (C8-H18) in the fuel and everything to do with how well the fuel resists detonation (which is directly related to the amount of energy (heat) required to get the fuel burning).

It is possible to assign Octane values to fuel containing no octane’s whatsoever.

WHY DO WE CARE ABOUT OCTANE? WHAT IS PREIGNITION? WHAT IS DETONATION?
The octane value of a fuel is an empirical measure of its ability to resist detonation and, to a limited extent, pre-ignition. Technically, octane ratings measure a fuel’s ability to resist the spontaneous ignition of un-burnt end-gases under controlled test conditions. What is pre-ignition?

Pre-ignition occurs when the fuel/air mixture in a cylinder ignites before the spark plug fires.
It can be caused by burning contaminates (such as carbon, or a spark plug of the wrong heat range) in the cylinder or by extreme overheating.

WHAT IS DETONATION ?
Detonation occurs when the flame-front in a cylinder does not proceed smoothly from the point of ignition (the spark plug) to the opposite side of the cylinder. It refers to the spontaneous ignition of the entire charge in the cylinder. This is often caused by the extreme pressure rise in the cylinder that occurs when the charge is first ignited (by the spark plug) but having several flame fronts colliding with each other rather than developing uniform pressure rise to the piston is detrimental. Detonation, ping, and knock are all symptoms that the maximum energy is not being extracted from the fuel charge.

Use of the Fitch Fuel Catalyst minimizes this occurance.

WHAT ABOUT FUELS?
There are six things to consider when comparing hydrocarbon fuels:

  1. Volatility. In short, what’s the fuel’s propensity to vaporize? This affects the ability to easily mix the fuel with air and the fuel’s tendency to vapor lock. It also determines the pollution characteristics of the fuel where evaporative pollution is a concern.
  2. Pre-ignition & knock resistance. Referred to as “Octane value.” How much energy does it take to get the fuel burning – how much does it resist auto-ignition from compressive heat? Also, what is the rate of burn of the fuel (which affects the rate of pressure rise)?
  3. Energy content. How much energy can be extracted from the fuel as a percentage of its volume or mass?
  4. Heat of evaporation.
  5. Chemical stability, neutrality, and cleanliness. What additives does the fuel contain to retard gum formation? Prevent icing? Prevent corrosion? Reduce deposits?
  6. Safety in handling.

The first three factors are often confused and interrelated when; in fact, they measure three completely separate things. There is no natural correlation between them.

General rules:

  1. Heavy fuels (diesel, jet): Low volatility, low knock resistance, and high energy per volume
  2. Light fuels (gasoline): High volatility, high knock resistance, and low energy per volume

Note that gasoline, partially, makes up for its (relatively) low energy-per gallon by the fact that a gallon of gasoline weighs less (by about 15%) than a gallon of jet fuel. Octane rating is in no way correlated with engine power or efficiency. There is more potential energy in a gallon of diesel fuel than a gallon of gasoline, yet the diesel fuel has a much lower octane value (more on that below).

HOW IS THE OCTANE RATING OF A FUEL DETERMINED?
First you obtain a suitable supply of the fuel you wish to test. Then get some heptanes (made from pine sap) and some iso-octane (a petroleum derivative C8-H18). Accept the arbitrarily assignment that iso-octane has an octane rating of 100 while heptane has an octane rating of 0.

Next call up Waukesha Motors and order an ASTM-CFR test engine. (about $250,000 ). This single-cylinder wonder has a four-bowl carburetor and a movable cylinder head that can vary the compression ratio between 4:1 to 18:1 while the engine is running.

Fill the ASTM-CFR full of the test fuel to be rated and, for automotive fuels, run two test protocols using the ASTM. One protocol is called the motor protocol and the other the research protocol. You vary the compression ratio until the onset of knock and write down all kinds of parameters.

Next run the reference fuel made up of various proportions of heptane and iso-octane through the ASTM-CFR. Keep varying the proportion of heptane to iso-octane until a fuel that behaves just like (knock-wise) the test fuel. Once you get that, you say to yourself “How much heptane did I have to add to the iso-octane to get the mixture to knock in the ASTM-CFR just like the test fuel?” If the answer is 10% heptane to 90% iso-octane, the test fuel has an octane number of 90.

How do the motor and research protocols differ? Mostly in input parameters. In the motor protocol (ASTM D2700-92), the input air temp is maintained at 38 degrees Celcius, the ignition timing varies with compression ratio between 14 and 26 degrees BTDC, and the motor is run at 900 RPM. In the research protocol (ASTM D2699-92) the input air temperature varies between 20C and 52C (depending on barometric pressure), timing is fixed at 13 degrees BTDC, and the motor is run at 600RPM.

The motor method, developed in the 1920s, was the first octane rating method devised. After its introduction, many more methods were introduced. During the 1940s through the 1960s one of those methods, the research method, was found to more closely correlate with the fuels and vehicles then available. However, in the early 1970s automobiles running on high-speed roads, such as the German Autobahn, started destroying themselves from high-speed knock. It was found that the difference in ratings between the research and motor method, known as the fuel’s sensitivity was important as well. The greater the fuel’s sensitivity, the worse it performed from a knock point of view in demanding, real-world, applications.

At the pumps, the results of the motor and research numbers are averaged together to get the value you see. That is why you often see the equation (R + M) / 2 on the side of the pump. The fuel’s sensitivity is not published. Highly cracked fuels have high sensitivity while parafinic fuels often show near zero difference between the two. While the fuel’s sensitivity is not listed at the pump it can be a valuable indicator as to the fuel’s real world octane performance. Remember, the octane tests are conducted in a lab using a special test engine; the lower the fuel’s sensitivity, the more likely it is that the fuel will, indeed, behave as expected. Generally, the closer the fuel’s research rating to the published rating the more reliable the published rating. Because the motor and research methods primarily differ in terms of input parameters (the test engine is the same for both), the greater difference that a fuel exhibits between its motor and research test will be due to differences in input parameters (intake temp, timing, etc.). A fuel that has an octane rating that varies with intake parameters is said to be more “sensitive.”

HOW DO THEY GET OCTANE NUMBERS ABOVE 100?
Often it’s done by pure extrapolation. A more reliable method, however, is through the use of so-called performance numbers. Briefly, these are arrived at by determining the instantaneous mean effective cylinder pressure (IMEP), using the fuel under test, at the highest boost that does not cause knocking. This number is then multiplied by 100 and the resultant is divided by the IMEP at the highest boost that does not cause knocking on the 100 octane equivalent fuel.
Note that, technically, there is no such thing as an octane number above 100. Avoid referring to “110 octane gasoline”. Rather “a gasoline with a performance number of 110” is more accurate.

HOW IS THE OCTANE RATING OF A FUEL DETERMINED?
First you obtain a suitable supply of the fuel you wish to test. Then get some heptanes (made from pine sap) and some iso-octane (a petroleum derivative C8-H18). Accept the arbitrarily assignment that iso-octane has an octane rating of 100 while heptane has an octane rating of 0.
Next call up Waukesha Motors and order an ASTM-CFR test engine. (about $250,000 ). This single-cylinder wonder has a four-bowl carburetor and a movable cylinder head that can vary the compression ratio between 4:1 to 18:1 while the engine is running.

Fill the ASTM-CFR full of the test fuel to be rated and, for automotive fuels, run two test protocols using the ASTM. One protocol is called the motor protocol and the other the research protocol. You vary the compression ratio until the onset of knock and write down all kinds of parameters.
Next run the reference fuel made up of various proportions of heptane and iso-octane through the ASTM-CFR. Keep varying the proportion of heptane to iso-octane until a fuel that behaves just like (knock-wise) the test fuel. Once you get that, you say to yourself “How much heptane did I have to add to the iso-octane to get the mixture to knock in the ASTM-CFR just like the test fuel?” If the answer is 10% heptane to 90% iso-octane, the test fuel has an octane number of 90.

How do the motor and research protocols differ? Mostly in input parameters. In the motor protocol (ASTM D2700-92), the input air temp is maintained at 38 degrees Celcius, the ignition timing varies with compression ratio between 14 and 26 degrees BTDC, and the motor is run at 900 RPM. In the research protocol (ASTM D2699-92) the input air temperature varies between 20C and 52C (depending on barometric pressure), timing is fixed at 13 degrees BTDC, and the motor is run at 600RPM.

The motor method, developed in the 1920s, was the first octane rating method devised. After its introduction, many more methods were introduced. During the 1940s through the 1960s one of those methods, the research method, was found to more closely correlate with the fuels and vehicles then available. However, in the early 1970s automobiles running on high-speed roads, such as the German Autobahn, started destroying themselves from high-speed knock. It was found that the difference in ratings between the research and motor method, known as the fuel’s sensitivity was important as well. The greater the fuel’s sensitivity, the worse it performed from a knock point of view in demanding, real-world, applications.
At the pumps, the results of the motor and research numbers are averaged together to get the value you see. That is why you often see the equation (R + M) / 2 on the side of the pump. The fuel’s sensitivity is not published. Highly cracked fuels have high sensitivity while parafinic fuels often show near zero difference between the two. While the fuel’s sensitivity is not listed at the pump it can be a valuable indicator as to the fuel’s real world octane performance. Remember, the octane tests are conducted in a lab using a special test engine; the lower the fuel’s sensitivity, the more likely it is that the fuel will, indeed, behave as expected. Generally, the closer the fuel’s research rating to the published rating the more reliable the published rating. Because the motor and research methods primarily differ in terms of input parameters (the test engine is the same for both), the greater difference that a fuel exhibits between its motor and research test will be due to differences in input parameters (intake temp, timing, etc.). A fuel that has an octane rating that varies with intake parameters is said to be more “sensitive.”

HOW DO THEY GET OCTANE NUMBERS ABOVE 100?
Often it’s done by pure extrapolation. A more reliable method, however, is through the use of so-called performance numbers. Briefly, these are arrived at by determining the instantaneous mean effective cylinder pressure (IMEP), using the fuel under test, at the highest boost that does not cause knocking. This number is then multiplied by 100 and the resultant is divided by the IMEP at the highest boost that does not cause knocking on the 100 octane equivalent fuel.
Note that, technically, there is no such thing as an octane number above 100. Avoid referring to “110 octane gasoline”. Rather “a gasoline with a performance number of 110” is more accurate.

QUESTIONS? Contact us, we are happy to answer!









CONTACT US

We will respond as soon as posible.
Monday to Friday – 9am to 6pm.

Email: info@fitchfuelcat.com
Toll Free Phone: (860) 921-0009